Tokamak, an Ethereum based On-demand Layer 2 Aggregator

 With the DeFi boom, high Gas charges, congested networks, and ethereum's performance problems have come under renewed scrutiny. Especially during Uniswap's airdrop boom, Gas charges reached a peak of 500GWei, or 200 to300 RMB for each transaction. This has put ethereum's Layer2 expansion solution back in the spotlight, and even Vitalik himself has indicated that the project should focus on Layer2 as soon as possible, citing zk-rollup and Plasma as examples of viable solutions.

Ethereum Gas price trend in the last three months


As Ethereum 2.0 approaches, the Layer2 project is getting a lot of attention. On November 10, Tokamak Network, a Layer2 project, released Python-SnARKS, an open source zero-knowledge proof library written based on Python. This will help Layer2 expansion plan in the direction of Ethereal zero-knowledge proof ZK. At the same time, Tokamak Network also upgraded its brand and positioned itself as an on-demand Layer2 platform, flexibly integrating the most cutting-edge Layer2 protocol technology.


Why upgrade Layer2 platform to be  "on demand"?


Currently, Ethereum has a variety of Layer2 expansion schemes, including side chain, State Channel, Plasma, Rollup and Validium, among which ZK Rollup and Optimistic Rollup are collectively referred to as Rollup technology expansion schemes. PlasmaEVM and Rollup are the main research areas of Tokamak Network. Its leading research in Plasma has won praise from Vitalik, who says that Tokamak's innovation in Plasma is even more advanced than that of Ethereum core researchers. This is a big vote of confidence for Onther, the research and development company behind Tokamak, that has also gained the support of theEthereum Foundation.


There is no unified direction among different expansion schemes This means that each scheme has its own advantages and disadvantages, and each solution has its own most suitable application scenario.


For example, the state channel, which theoretically implements unlimited TPS, has the lowest fee in the Layer2 solution, but only between two users. ZK Rollup does not occupy the storage space of the main chain, thus helping expand and improve the network’s storage. However, due to the complexity of zero-knowledge proof generation, it may not be suitable for simple transfer as compared to state channels with around 3,000 TPS at present. 

Plasma, co-proposed by Vitalik and Lightning Network founder Joseph Poon, allows for complex operations and intelligent contracts on subchains. However, availability of transaction data on plasma protocols is flawed, and there is also a theoretical possibility that user data can be falsified. 

The downside of Optimistic Rollup is that it is a security issue and only a 1 to 2 week challenge period of error proof is safe enough. The Validium protocol does not have the security of ethereum's main network because the transactions are placed under the chain.

Therefore, for a Dapp project, implementing a Layer2 solution is the right choice. They have the options to even use multiple solutions depending on the requirements and scenario. Different solutions can work together to support a scenario. 

Currently, ZK Rollup is suitable for decentralized exchanges or payment transfer while Rollup is suitable for complex DeFi applications. Status channel is suitable for Dapp with high delay requirements while Plasma chain can be iterated, allowing new design to be implemented faster. As such, Plasma chain is suitable for scenarios that need frequent iteration, such as games.


"On-demand" is an enabler and incubator to customize tier 2 technologies according to demand. In fact, "on-demand" has become popular in cloud computing and the internet to improve efficiency and avoid waste. The Tokamak Network continues this philosophy, with itsco-founder Kevin Jeong seeing an on-demand platform as the way to build a sustainable Layer2 ecosystem. For blockchain projects, such an on-demand configuration will also save a lot of time and effort to maximize the value of the solution. Developers using the Tokamak Network will receive feedback and technical support, and their technical white paper will be released soon.


Launch Python-SNARKs to speed up Layer2 refinement


Vitalik's assessment of the current Ethereum Layer 2 expansion strategy is that the initial deployment has been "basically" successful, while the remaining issues are refinement and deployment. In his view, the success of Layer 2 is basically a matter of certainty, rather than the previous exploration problem. And Layer2's solutions are getting more refined and more developer friendly with time.

For example, Tokamak Network recently released Python-Snarks for developer-friendly action. Currently, the R&D of zero-knowledge proof ZK Rollup is mostly based on C and C , while python-Snarks provides development tools for the vast Python language users. Python is increasingly being accepted and used by developers due to its relatively easy access, and applicability in AI and machine learning.

SNARK is a privacy solution with properties called "public validators" that can validate without interaction. Optimistic Rollups and Zk-Rollups realize Layer 2 scalable solution of Ethernet House through Zk-Snarks. The Python-Snarks are composed of three different modules: setup, authentication, and validation. Developers can set operations written in WASM or generate and validate zero knowledge. In this respect, Kevin said

"We decided to open source Python-Snarks to help blockchain projects that are trying to adopt zero-knowledge proof. I hope to get feedback from encryption researchers and developers.".

In addition to the technical features, the scrip TON in Tokamak Network also deserves attention since it serves as the fuel and incentive to ensure the healthy operation of the ecosystem. In addition to the most basic transaction fee as a sub-chain, developers also need to mortgage TON when they deploy the sub-chain and link to Tokamak Network. For this, they will get a return similar to Staking. In case of violation of rules and successful correction of the operator or user's actions through challenges, the TON pledged will be partially or completely awarded to the challenger as a reward. TON, with a circulation of 50m, began distributing tokens on August 13th this year, shortly before launching on Upbit, South Korea's largest exchange.

The Tokamak Network team's leading strategic consideration and layout of its Layer2 solution came from deep examination and thinking of theEthereum network. Kevin Jeong, co-founder and CEO of Tokamak Network, wrote South Korea's first smart contract based on a profit-sharing governance document. As a super opinion leader in the blockchain industry, Kevin has been providing professional advice on this technology to the South Korean government and major enterprises for a long time. He is also an ethereum community advocate and co-organizer of the Ethereum Meeting in the Seoul area. Co-founder and COO Zoe Kim wrote South Korea's first thesis on Ethereum while studying for a master's degree and holds a patent on mining management systems and methods.

In addition to funding from the Ethereum Foundation, Tokamak Network has also received investments from senior investment houses 100 &100 Venture Capital, including Alphain Ventures, Blocore, Skytale Capital and other institutional strategic investments in the blockchain project of Kaokao, the largest social media company in South Korea.

Ethereum's expansion continues. After Ethereum 2.0, the diverse Layer2 solutions will work together to help Ethereum's ecosystem thrive, and the Layer2 platform on demand will be a boon to those who have developed to the largest extent.



Madiha Jamil
24 Nov

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25 Nov

good post, great work


preview not available Dotun Awosika
27 Nov

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Umair Ahmad
25 Nov

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preview not available Dotun Awosika
27 Nov

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preview not available Ilin Kazandzhiev
28 Nov

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Ghazala Aslam
25 Nov

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preview not available Dotun Awosika
27 Nov

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