This is my undergraduate assignment that I translated myself in the Data Communication course, which was prepared so that readers in 2011 can find out how big the role and influence of Internet technology is in our daily lives. This assignment contains knowledge about the internet at large. Apart from me, our group consisted of Arya Putrawan, Dion Adi Putra, Vencysica Jeane, Sanita Eling Cipta Nesa, and Yulianti Murprayana. This task has never been published anywhere and we as the authors and the copyright holders license this task customized CC-BY-SA where anyone can share, copy, republish, and sell on condition that to state our name as the author and notify that the original and open version available here.
Chapter 1 Introduction
Nowadays computers can be found in almost every government office, company, school, or even household. The rapid development of computer technology, especially in the software sector, has made computers more user friendly and has made it a necessity for certain groups, such as businesses. In doing their work they are very dependent on computers. In the 20s, almost everyone knew and depended on the internet. Looking for information, communicating remotely instantly, entertainment can be accessed via the internet.
To get to know the name "internet" and describe well the internet from ancient times to the present. Responding to the history of the internet, the impact of the internet on the global world, knowing how the internet works and its development.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Definition of the Internet
The Internet is a global network of world computers, large and very broad where every computer is connected to one another from country to country around the world and contains various kinds of information, ranging from text, images, audio, video, and others.
The Internet itself comes from the word Interconnection Networking, which means the connection of many computer networks of various types, using communication types such as telephone, etc. The networks that make up the Internet work based on a set of protocols. standards used to connect computer networks and address traffic on the network. This protocol set the allowable data format, error handling (error handling), traffic messages, and other communication standards. The standard protocol on the internet is known as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). This protocol has the ability to work on all types of computers, without being affected by differences in hardware or operating systems used.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is responsible for ensuring that all connections work properly, while IP (Internet Protocol) transmits data from one computer to another. TPC/IP generally functions to choose the best route for data transmission, choose an alternative route if a route cannot be used, organize and send data sending packets.
In order to participate in using the Internet facility, you must subscribe to an existing ISP (Internet Service Provider) serving your area. This ISP is usually called an internet service provider. You can use facilities from Telkom such as Telkomnet Instant, speedy and also other ISP services such as first media, netzip and so on.
2.2 History of Internet
Initially the United States Department of Defense (US Department of Defense) wanted to create a distributed computer network system by connecting computers in vital areas to solve problems in the event of a nuclear attack and to avoid centralized information, which in case of war could be easily destroyed. The first time it was used was the telegraph. Unfortunately the telegraph can only function optimally when the weather is good.
Another device that was used was computers in ancient times. At that time the exchange of files between the central computer and the terminal was possible. The longer the elapsed time the connection distance can be for the terminal and the higher the speed for the interconnection. But technology at that time was a strategic and military risk because there was no alternative route to communication if attacked. Therefore research was carried out between two physically separate systems and resulted in a packet switching model for a digital network. Labs used include Vinton G. Cerf at Stanford University, Donald Davies (NPL), Paul Baran (RAND Corporation), and Leonard Kleinrock at MIT and at UCLA. This research resulted in the development of packet switching networks such as ARPANET, Telenet, and X.25 protocol. But these gateways are still limited and they want to produce an internetworking protocol where many different networks can combine into a super-framework network. By using the internet protocol (IP) system, the idea of a global network called the Internet developed.
1957, the USSR (now Russia) launched the spacecraft, Sputnik.
1958, In the aftermath of the "defeat" of the United States in launching a space probe, an agency within the United States Department of Defense, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was formed, aimed at making the United States capable of improve the country's science and technology. One of its goals is computer technology.
1962, J.C.R. Licklider wrote an article about a vision in which computers can be connected to one another globally so that each computer can offer access to programs and data. It was also this year that the RAND Corporation began a research against this idea (distributed computer networks), which were aimed at military purposes.
Early 1960s, packet-switching theory could be implemented in the real world.
Mid-1960s, ARPA developed the ARPANET to promote "Cooperative Networking of Time-sharing Computers", with only four host computers that could be connected until 1969, namely the Stanford Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Santa Barbara, and University of Utah.
1965, The term "Hypertext" was coined by Ted Nelson.
1968, the Tymnet Network was created.
1971, ARPANET network members increased to 23 computer nodes, which consist of computers for research owned by the United States government and universities.
1972, a working group called the International Network Working Group (INWG) was created to improve computer network technology and also create standards for computer networks, including the Internet. The organization's first speaker was Vint Cerf, who was later referred to as the "Father of the Internet"
1972-1974, Several commercial database services such as Dialog, SDC Orbit, Lexis, The New York Times DataBank, and others, register themselves with ARPANET via dial-up network.
1973, ARPANET outside the United States: this year, ARPANET members increased again with the entry of several universities outside the United States, namely the University College of London from England and the Royal Radar Establishment in Norway.
1974, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn published a detailed specification of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) protocol in the article "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection".
1974, Bolt, Beranet & Newman (BBN), a contractor for the ARPANET, opened a commercial version of the ARPANET which they called Telenet, which was the first public packet data service.
1977, there are already 111 computers connected to the ARPANET.
1978, the TCP Protocol is divided into two parts, namely the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol (TCP / IP).
1979, The first Usenet discussion group was created by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin, alumni of Duke University and the University of North Carolina, United States. After that, Usenet usage increased dramatically. In this year, emoticons were proposed by Kevin McKenzie.
Early 1980s, the personal computer (PC) was endemic, and became a part of many human lives. This year, it was noted that the ARPANET had members of up to 213 connected hosts. BITNET (Because It's Time Network) service started, by providing e-mail services, mailing lists, and also File Transfer Protocol (FTP). CSNET (Computer Science Network) was built this year by scientists and experts in the field of computer science from Purdue University, University of Washington, RAND Corporation, and BBN, with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF). This network provides these scientists with e-mail and several other services without having to access the ARPANET.
1982, The term "Internet" was first used, and TCP / IP was adopted as the universal protocol for the network. Name servers were developed, allowing users to connect to a host without having to know the exact path to that host. This year there are more than 1000 hosts registered to the Internet.
1986, Introduced the domain name system, which is now known as the DNS (Domain Name System) which functions to unify the system of naming addresses on computer networks.
2.3 The Basic Structure Of The Internet And How It Works
The interconnecting network or the internet consists of hundreds of thousands of smaller networks that connect educational, commercial, non-profit, military and even individual organizations. This arrangement is called a server/client network. Client computers are computers that request data or services. The server or host computer is the central computer that provides the requested data or service. When a client computer requests information for various flights and ticket prices to the server computer, the server computer sends the information back to the client computer.
Internet Connection: POP, NAP, Backbone and Internet2 (how to distinguish POP and NAP, and what is meant by the internet backbone and what is the Internet2) For example for dial-up, when your client's computer modem is connected to Your ISP by local telephone. This is a fairly time-consuming step in the internet connection process, although the ISP office and network servers can be located anywhere.
Point of Presense: so that consumers do not have to pay long distance connection fees (SLJJ) for internet connection, ISP provides a Point of Presense (POP) for each consumer - namely a local access point to the internet - which is a collection of modems and line equipment in a local area. POP acts as a local gateway to the ISP network.
Network Access point: then the ISP connects to the NAP (Network Access Point) of a routing computer at one point on the internet where multiple connections are made. NAP is owned by a network service provider (NSP), a large communications company such as AGIS or MCI. The four irisinil NAPs in the United States are located in San Francisco, Washington D.C., Chicago, and New Jersey. Some of these NAPs were founded in 1993 when the network that formed the internet was privatized.
Internet Backbone: at least each NAP consists of a computer that is tasked with directing internet traffic from one NAP to another. This inter-NAP link is similar to the interstate flat road line, which is called the Internet Backbone, which is a high-speed, large-capacity transmission line that uses the latest communication technology to transmit data over the internet. Backbone connections are provided by internet backbone providers such as AT&T, Cable & Wireless, GTE, Sprint, Teleglobe and UUNET.
Internet2: is a university/corporate research or collaboration project that enables high-end users to move large amounts of data very quickly and securely over high-speed networks. Thus, internet2 becomes a kind of "toll lane" on top of traditional internet lines that can speed things up. Its aim is to accommodate the needs of videoconferencing, research, and academic collaboration-in order to build a “virtual university”. Currently, internet2 has connected more than 206 research universities. With a dedicated infrastructure, internet2 runs on a high-speed backbone network called Abiline. Backbone is the one that is widely used by universities.
Internet Communications: Protocols, Packages, and Addresses
2.4 How computers understand data transmitted over the Internet
When your modem is connected to a modem at a POP ISP location, the two modems then go into the handshaking process, which is looking for the highest possible transmission speed. Then comes the authentication process: your ISP must know who you are by checking your username and password. You will definitely get these two things when you start subscribing to an ISP.
Protocols: How do computers understand the data being transmitted? The key lies in the data that belongs to the same protocol, which is a set of communication rules that must be followed by every computer to send data electronically. The protocol that allows all computers to use data transmitted over the internet is called the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. TCP/IP was developed by ARPA in 1978. TCP/IP is used in all internet transactions, from sending e-mails to downloading pictures from your friends' websites. In principle, TCP/IP determines how the sending device signals that it has finished sending messages and how the receiving device signals that it has finished receiving messages.
Packets: The most important thing to know about TCP/IP is that TCP/IP divides the data in a message in the form of packets: blocks of data of a certain length for transmission. With the form of a packet, a message is split into several parts and the parts are sent in different routes to one destination. IP is used to send packets over the internet to the final destination, while TCP is used to reorder packets that have been received. It is not necessary for each packet to have the same route to reach its final destination because each packet has the same IP address.
IP (Internet Protocol) Address: is a unique identifier for each computer and device connected to the internet. An IP address consists of four groups of numbers between 0 and 255 separated by a decimal (called a dotted quad), such as 22.214.171.124. IP addresses are similar to home street addresses. The difference is, the home address changes rarely while the IP address changes very often. Every time you connect to the internet through an ISP, the ISP will assign a new IP address to your computer. This IP address is called a dynamic IP address, unique to your current online session. When you request data from the internet, the data is actually transmitted to your computer's IP address. And when you disconnect the internet (disconnect), the ISP takes back the IP address you have used and gives it to another user. Dynamic IP addresses change every time you connect to the internet, while static IP addresses are fixed every time someone logs on to the internet. An established organization's website, such as an ISP, naturally has a static IP address. It sounds simple enough if every computer connected to the internet has its own static IP number. However, when the internet began to be built, its architects had not yet estimated an infinite number of IP addresses. Consequently, the existing IP numbers are not sufficient. To overcome this, many internet access providers limit the static IP addresses they allocate and reduce the number of IP addresses they have by assigning temporary IP addresses taken from a pool of IP addresses.
2.4.1 Who Runs the Internet? What Does ICANN Do?
Although no one has the internet, everyone on the network must comply with the standards set by the International Board of Trustees of ISOC, Internet Society (www.isoc.org). ISOC is a non-profit and professional community of 100 organizations and 200,000 individual members in more than 180 countries. Organizations that are members of ISOC consist of various companies, government agencies, and foundations. ISOC is a forum for tackling internet problems in the future and is the basis for groups that play a role in developing internet infrastructure standards.
June 1998, the United States government proposed the creation of a series of non-profit companies to manage complex issues on the internet, such as fraud prevention, privacy issues and intellectual property protection. First is the International Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), which was established to manage human-friendly domain names - that is, addresses ending in .com, .org, .net and others, in lieu of IP address numbers. to identify the type of website.
ICANN (which can be accessed at www.icann.org) is a global, private and not-for-profit company that does not have statutory authority and enforces policies through an inter members around the world. After receiving criticism for being inefficient, in 2003 ICANN became ICANN 2.0 which was increasingly responsive and active to become a reference for the world internet community in adopting standards. One of the improvements is the ICANN Whois Database which is able to display the name and domain address entered (for example, by typing microsoft.com, the name and address of Microsoft Corp. will appear). However, various groups including the International Telecommunication Union, an agency under the auspices of the United Nations, have alleged that the United States through ICANN controls the internet too much, and several countries have proposed the existence of an international institution as a replacement for ICANN. In July 2005, the United States confirmed that it would maintain its role in Internet governance.
Currently, IP addresses in North America, South America, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa are regulated by the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN; www.arin.net).
2.5 Use of the Internet
2.5.1 Internet as a Communication Media
Several phenomena and the advantages of the internet as a medium of information and communication compared to other media. Information obtained is easier, faster and cheaper with global reach. This is supported by the fact that to reach as many as 60 million users: it took 30 years for radio, it took 15 years for television, It took 3 years for the web with applications: Email, WWW, NewsGroup, FTP Gopher, and others. Online media sites have sprung up (whether printed media or not) have reduced paper costs and distribution costs, for example: Newspapers on the Internet (Kompas Cyber Media), Seconds, Satunet, CNN, magazines, brochures, etc.
- The internet as a promotional medium, including: Company image, product introduction and ordering, client registration, delivery schedule etc.
- Internet as Interactive Communication: Email, Customer Support with WWW, Video Conferencing, Internet Relay Chat, Internet Phone.
2.6 Internet Negative Impact / Loss
Dependence on the internet is starting to spread to big cities in Indonesia. Unfortunately not all of them have a positive impact, even so far internet users are more dominant in carrying out negative activities. In order to take appropriate action, it is necessary to have a clear and practical understanding of this unhealthy dependence on the internet. Addiction to the cyber world falls into five categories.
Cybersexual addiction is an obsession to view, download and trade pornography. Chat rooms containing fantasy and role playing for adults also fall into this category.
Cyber-relational addiction is excessive involvement in relationships that exist over the internet (such as through chat rooms and virtual affairs) to the point of losing contact with relationships that exist in the real world.
Net gaming is a kind of addiction due to gambling, playing games, shopping and buying and selling shares via the internet which interferes with work and/or results in debt.
Information overload Finding the endless information available on the internet, some people are willing to spend hours gathering and organizing the various available information.
Computer addiction Research has found that some organizations experience negative impacts as a result of addiction to off-line games (such as Solitaire and Tetris which were popular in the 1980s), which on average are a lot installed on the computer.
Three things to watch out for: fraud, carding, gambling
2.7 How Far Has the Internet Developed Until Now?
Dial up Access Media, this media is still there and can still be used today, even internet service providers still sell the service. But slowly but surely other access media that promise quality and competitive prices make dial-up perhaps the last choice if we are going to connect to the Internet. Even in office buildings in Jakarta, fiber optic is the first menu as a medium of connection to the Internet. For personal / personal media wireless from service providers seems to be the main choice to be able to connect to the Internet anytime, anywhere. Free / paid Wi-Fi hotspot services are still chosen by customers because they are believed to provide sufficient quality. In several residential areas in Jakarta, an internet connection provided by a cable TV service provider is also an option for connecting to the Internet. Don't forget the RT/RW net, which is a self-supporting infrastructure built by the community which is also widely used in homes. Currently, the speed for subscribing to the Internet varies widely from 57 Kbps to the largest unit, Mbps.
Content The availability of various content nowadays makes people more comfortable to do various activities on the Internet. Forums, e-mail services, various kinds of portals are now available, both domestic products and products from neighboring countries. In fact, one of the current trends, namely the blog, is getting a very good response in Indonesian society. And with this existence Indonesia is quite taken into account in the world of international blogs.
Social Networking Until now, Yahoo Messenger is still the most popular chat media. Facebook is a social networking phenomenon that is of interest to all walks of life. Students, housewives, professionals to artists and even political circles use Facebook to keep in touch with others. Twitter, Plurk complement the world of social networking today. However, where is the local content produced by local children? No need to worry, Kaskus, Fupei, Koprol are domestic products that are quite attractive and successful. Even information providers do not remain silent about this, the Detik.com forum and the Kompas.com forum try to provide a 'sense of social networking' for their visitors.
Terminal OS When the price of laptops started to fall and became more affordable, then a new trend emerged in people's lives where cafes and public places. provided wi-fi hotspots for visitors. It's very common to see cafe visitors chatting with their laptops. However, this trend did not last long either, laptops are still too big to carry anywhere, although currently notetbooks (smaller laptops) are also available at a more affordable price. And finally they prefer a terminal that is smaller and can be carried anywhere without making them complicated. Smartphone, that's the answer. When Nokia decided to choose Indonesia as the first launch site in the world for its Communicator product, it was a milestone that showed that the 'mobile internet' was a trend that would continue to grow rapidly not only in Indonesia, but in other parts of the world, and it was proven. currently. BlackBerry, Iphone, Android, Windows Mobile Devices up to Nexian class are options that can be used to continue to be connected to the Internet by mobile. But still, the functions of desktops and laptops cannot be replaced. The types of smartphones used are only complementary to the desktop and laptop itself.
Internet of 2011
In 1989, Timothy Berners-Lee, a computer engineer from England created the World Wide Web, a kind of program that allows sound, pictures, movies, music to be displayed on the internet. It is because of this invention that the internet has become more attractive in appearance and very varied. Previously the internet could only be used by certain groups and with certain components. But now people who are at home can also connect to the internet using a modem and telephone network. In addition, the Internet is widely used by companies, educational institutions, government agencies, military institutions around the world to provide information to the public.
Apart from the above benefits, the internet also has a negative effect because the information on the internet is too free. So that it allows children to see various things that are not appropriate to see or read.
How to access the internet
If at home we don't have a computer connected to the internet, we can take advantage of an internet cafe (internet cafe) or maybe a school computer laboratory that is already connected to the internet to find information. To search for information or data, you can click/press shortcut/image browser.
if you use the Internet Explorer browser. Then fill in the address of the site addressed to the Address. To find information quickly, use search sites such as: yahoo.com, google.com, e-smartschool.com or others. After entering the search site, enter the keyword (keywords) you are looking for.
The development of the internet and online games
Entertainment in the form of games accessed through cyberspace, Online Games, since its emergence has been very popular with Indonesian gamers. The types are increasingly diverse, with various challenges offered. From time to time since they first entered Indonesia and were introduced to the community, the development of online games has shown a very fast growth along with technological developments. Many Indonesian private companies then buy game licenses to be marketed in Indonesia. This trend has directly or indirectly influenced the growth of game centers in Indonesia.
Game Online Indonesia has entered a period of about 4 years with the launch of the first online game called Nexia by Bolehgame in early 2001. Many things have happened after that with the entry of several new game providers such as Ragnarok Online (RO) in 2003 which finally managed to make online games boom to its highest point, which caused chaos for Indonesia's internet connection because the available bandwidth at that time was insufficient1. If starting at the beginning of online games entering Indonesia, it can be said that until now he has been around seven years old.
Chapter 3 Closing
Internet is the development of media in the field of communication systems. The reach of the internet has reached the entire world (planet earth).
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